The following 3 steps (also in that order) should be considered to reduce energy consumption of new and existing buildings:
- The building shell: Have the right U-values and a tight construction. This is step 1: to reduce the all-over energy need of a building
- The distribution of energy: Distribute only the energy you need. Demand control ventilation, heating and cooling to not over-heat, under-cool or over-ventilate rooms (work with presence detection, CO/VOC measurements and absence temperatures). Keep all rooms (or zones) in air balance (to avoid infiltration or exfiltration). This is step 2: to reduce the amount of energy used in all the different rooms
- The “production” (facilitation) of energy: The production of heating, cooling and ventilation that is still needed (after step 1 and 2) should be as efficient as possible and with as little purchased energy as possible. This is done by efficient air production with low SFP-values (high quality fans, low duct pressures); efficient energy recovery of heating, cooling and humidity (if possible with sorption or hygroscopic wheels), high EER & EER from chillers & heat pumps and low pressures and demand controlled pumps for the water pipes.